The overuse of depressants can lead to symptoms of CNS depression, including slowed reflexes, lightheadedness, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. Depressants affect GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter that slows down activity in the brain. When severe, CNS depression caused by substances such as opioids, alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and sleeping medications can be fatal. Before discussing the effect […]

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Initial evidence suggests that implicit measures of expectancies are correlated with relapse outcomes, as demonstrated in one study of heroin users [61]. In another recent study, researchers trained participants in attentional bias modification (ABM) during inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence and measured relapse over the course of three months post-treatment [62]. Relative to a control […]

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